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Snooker balls are smaller than American-style pool balls with a diameter of English billiard balls are the same size as snooker balls and come in sets of three balls two cue balls and a red, an object ball.
Other games, such as bumper pool , have custom ball sets. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite , celluloid , crystallite , ivory , plastic, steel and wood.
The dominant material from until the early 20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns, but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters.
The first viable substitute was celluloid , invented by John Wesley Hyatt in , but the material was volatile, sometimes exploding during manufacture, and was highly flammable.
There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables. Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide.
Most pool tables are known as 7-, 8-, or 9-footers, referring to the length of the table's long side.
Full-size snooker and English billiard tables are 12 feet 3. Pool halls tend to have 9-foot 2. Pubs will typically use 7-foot 2.
Ten-foot tables remain the standard size for carom billiard games. The slates on modern carom tables are usually heated to stave off moisture and provide a consistent playing surface.
The length of the pool table will typically be a function of space, with many homeowners purchasing an 8-foot 2. Full-size pool tables are 4. High-quality tables have a bed made of thick slate, in three pieces to prevent warping and changes due to temperature and humidity.
Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. Pocket billiards tables of all types normally have six pockets, three on each side four corner pockets, and two side or middle pockets.
Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. Bar or tavern tables, which get a lot of play, use "slower", more durable cloth.
The cloth used in upscale pool and snooker halls and home billiard rooms is "faster" i. Snooker cloth traditionally has a nap consistent fiber directionality and balls behave differently when rolling against versus along with the nap.
The cloth of the billiard table has traditionally been green, reflecting its origin originally the grass of ancestral lawn games , and has been so colored since at least the 16th century, but it is also produced in other colors such as red and blue.
A rack is the name given to a frame usually wood, plastic or aluminium used to organize billiard balls at the beginning of a game.
This is traditionally triangular in shape, but varies with the type of billiards played. There are two main types of racks; the more common triangular shape which is used for eight-ball and straight pool and the diamond-shaped rack used for nine-ball.
There are several other types of less common rack types that are also used, based on a "template" to hold the billiard balls tightly together.
Most commonly it is a thin plastic sheet with diamond-shaped cut-outs that hold the balls that is placed on the table with the balls set on top of the rack.
The rack is used to set up the "break" and removed before the "break shot" occurs. Billiards games are mostly played with a stick known as a cue.
A cue is usually either a one piece tapered stick or a two piece stick divided in the middle by a joint of metal or phenolic resin.
High quality cues are generally two pieces and are made of a hardwood, generally maple for billiards and ash for snooker.
The butt end of the cue is of larger circumference and is intended to be gripped by a player's hand. The shaft of the cue is of smaller circumference, usually tapering to an 0.
The tip, in conjunction with chalk, can be used to impart spin to the cue ball when it is not hit in its center.
Cheap cues are generally made of pine, low-grade maple and formerly often of ramin , which is now endangered , or other low-quality wood, with inferior plastic ferrules.
A quality cue can be expensive and may be made of exotic woods and other expensive materials which are artfully inlaid in decorative patterns. Many modern cues are also made, like golf clubs , with high-tech materials such as woven graphite.
Skilled players may use more than one cue during a game, including a separate cue often with a hard phenolic resin tip for the opening break shot and another, shorter cue with a special tip for jump shots.
The mechanical bridge, sometimes called a "rake", "crutch", "bridge stick" or simply "bridge", and in the UK a "rest", is used to extend a player's reach on a shot where the cue ball is too far away for normal hand bridging.
It consists of a stick with a grooved metal or plastic head which the cue slides on. Many amateurs refuse to use the mechanical bridge based on the perception that to do so is unmanly or cheating.
Some players, especially current or former snooker players, use a screw-on cue butt extension instead of or in addition to the mechanical bridge.
Bridge head design is varied, and not all designs especially those with cue shaft-enclosing rings, or wheels on the bottom of the head , are broadly tournament-approved.
Chalk is applied to the tip of the cue stick , ideally before every shot, to increase the tip's friction coefficient so that when it impacts the cue ball on a non-center hit, no miscue unintentional slippage between the cue tip and the struck ball occurs.
Chalk is an important element to make good shots in pool or snooker. Cue tip chalk is not actually the substance typically referred to as " chalk " generally calcium carbonate , but any of several proprietary compounds, with a silicate base.
It was around the time of the Industrial Revolution that newer compounds formed that provided better grip for the ball. This is when the English began to experiment with side spin or applying curl to the ball.
This was shortly introduced to the American players and is how the term "putting English on the ball" came to be. Some brands of hand chalk actually are made of compressed talc.
Tip chalk is not used for this purpose because it is abrasive, hand-staining and difficult to apply. Many players prefer a slick pool glove over hand chalk or talc because of the messiness of these powders; buildup of particles on the cloth will affect ball behavior and necessitate more-frequent cloth cleaning.
Cue tip chalk invented in its modern form by straight rail billiard pro William A. Spinks and chemist William Hoskins in   is made by crushing silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite  aluminium oxide ,   into a powder.
High humidity can also impair the effectiveness of chalk. Harder, drier compounds are generally considered superior by most players.
The main carom billiards games are straight rail , balkline and three cushion billiards. All are played on a pocketless table with three balls; two cue balls and one object ball.
In all, players shoot a cue ball so that it makes contact with the opponent's cue ball as well as the object ball. Others of multinational interest are four-ball and five-pins.
The most globally popular of the large variety of pocket games are Pool and snooker. A third, English billiards , has some features of carom billiards.
English billiards used to be one of the two most-competitive cue sports along with the carom game balkline, at the turn of the 20th century and is still enjoyed today in Commonwealth countries.
Another pocket game, Russian pyramid and its variants like kaisa are popular in the former Eastern bloc. In straight rail, a player scores a point and may continue shooting each time his cue ball makes contact with both other balls.
Some of the best players of straight billiards developed the skill to gather the balls in a corner or along the same rail for the purpose of playing a series of nurse shots to score a seemingly limitless number of points.
The first straight rail professional tournament was held in where Jacob Schaefer Sr. With the balls repetitively hit and barely moving in endless "nursing", there was little for the fans to watch.
In light of these skill developments in straight rail, the game of balkline soon developed to make it impossible for a player to keep the balls gathered in one part of the table for long, greatly limiting the effectiveness of nurse shots.
A balkline is a line parallel to one end of a billiards table. In the game of balkline, the players have to drive at least one object ball past a balkline parallel to each rail after a specified number of points have been scored.
Another solution was to require a player's cue ball to make contact with the rail cushions in the process of contacting the other balls.
This in turn saw the three-cushion version emerge, where the cue ball must make three separate cushion contacts during a shot.
This is difficult enough that even the best players can only manage to average one to two points per turn.
This is sometimes described as "hardest to learn" and "require most skill" of all billiards. There are many variations of games played on a standard pool table.
Popular pool games include eight-ball , nine-ball , straight pool and one-pocket. Even within games types e. A few of the more popular examples of pool games are given below.
In eight-ball and nine-ball, the object is to sink object balls until one can legally pocket the winning eponymous " money ball ". Well-known but waning in popularity is straight pool, in which players seek to continue sinking balls, rack after rack if they can, to reach a pre-determined winning score typically Related to nine-ball, another well-known game is rotation , where the lowest-numbered object ball on the table must be struck first, although any object ball may be pocketed i.
Each pocketed ball is worth its number, and the player with the highest score at the end of the rack is the winner.
In both one-pocket and bank pool, the players must sink a set number of balls; respectively, all in a particular pocket , or all by bank shots.
In snooker, players score points by alternately potting red balls and various special " colour balls ". Speed pool is a standard billiards game where the balls must be pocketed in as little time as possible.
Rules vary greatly from tournament to tournament. The International Speed Pool Challenge has been held annually since Dating to approximately , English billiards, called simply billiards  in many former British colonies and in the UK where it originated, was originally called the winning and losing carambole game , folding in the names of three predecessor games, the winning game , the losing game and the carambole game an early form of straight rail , that combined to form it.
English billiards requires two cue balls and a red object ball. The object of the game is to score either a fixed number of points, or score the most points within a set time frame, determined at the start of the game.
Snooker is a pocket billiards game originated by British officers stationed in India during the 19th century, based on earlier pool games such as black pool and life pool.
The name of the game became generalized to also describe one of its prime strategies: to " snooker " the opposing player by causing that player to foul or leave an opening to be exploited.
In the United Kingdom, snooker is by far the most popular cue sport at the competitive level, and major national pastime along with association football and cricket.
It is played in many Commonwealth countries as well, especially in Asia. Snooker is uncommon in North America, where pool games such as eight-ball and nine-ball dominate, and Latin America and Continental Europe , where carom games dominate.
The first World Snooker Championship was held in , and it has been held annually since then with few exceptions. Technically a form of pocket billiards, snooker has its own worldwide sporting community separate from that of pool.
These combine aspects of carom and pocket billiards, and are played on tables with pockets often as hazard s not targets. These are variations using small disks instead of balls, and light-weight cue sticks.
Cue sports. This article covers the word as an umbrella term for cue sports in general. Being a passionate gamer myself, I am happy about being a part of a team that creates wonderful games for millions of other players worldwide.
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